species ticks are also known to form almost 100 per cent of the tick infestations in street dogs in the urban areas of India (Megat Abd Rani and others 2011) with up to 80 per cent of the dogs infested. per cent and 18.9 per cent of dogs identified with canine ehrlichiosis by stained blood smears in Punjab and Nagpur, respectively (Juyal and others 1994, Samaradni and others 2003, Megat Abd Rani and others 2010a). Studies in Chennai reported that 50 per cent of privately-owned dogs tested positive for when using species-specific PCR compared with 19 per cent by microscopy (Lakshmanan and others 2007). Megat Abd Rani and others (2011) reported Rabbit polyclonal to Cystatin C a PCR-based prevalence of 27.2 to 39.5 per cent of in tropical and subtropical Delhi and Mumbai, but an absence of this pathogen in the more temperate climate zones of north-West Bengal and Jammu Kashmir. has been reported in northern India. Borthakur and others (2006) identified 34 per cent of 240 dogs at a slaughterhouse in north-east India to be infected with to be confined to north-east India. However, potential vectors, such as (the Asian tiger mosquito), for are present throughout India (Megat Abd Rani and others 2010b). There has been at least one study that has failed to identify sensu lato in India (Handa and others 1999). has recently been identified in Indian dogs by PCR at prevalences of 8 to 13 per cent in Mumbai and Delhi but is absent in more temperate climate zones (Megat Abd Rani and others 2011). Blood samples from 48 dogs undergoing surgical sterilisation as part of an animal birth control programme at Animal Tracks, a Veterinary Centre run by the International Animal Rescue in North Goa, India, were tested for antigen, sensu lato, species and antibody using the SNAP 4Dx Test (IDEXX) kit according to the manufacturer’s instructions. Biometric data including age, weight, sex and body condition on a five-point scale, and the area from which the dog was PF-04979064 captured, were recorded for each animal. A summary of the samples collected is shown in Table 1. Samples were collected over an eight-week period in August and September 2011. Table 1 Summary of the morphometric data of dogs sampled for this study and or were found (Fig 1). There was a significant association for co-infection with and (P 0.005). No other significant associations were found. Open in a separate window Fig 1 Seroprevalence of Dogs to and (N=48) PF-04979064 This short communication provides further evidence for the presence of in Indian dogs with a seroprevalence of 21 per cent. This is very similar to the recent report by Megat Abd Rani and others (2011) of a PCR-based prevalence of 27.2 per cent for in Mumbai, which is only 600 km north of Goa and in a similar climate zone. The prevalence of (19 per cent) in this short communication is consistent with the other studies on this pathogen in India, which suggest prevalences from 0.35 to 50 per cent (Juyal and others 1994, Samaradni and others 2003, Lakshmanan and others 2007, Megat Abd Rani and others 2010a, Megat Abd Rani and others 2011). Co-infection of and was found in 10 per cent of dogs; this association was statistically significant (P 0.005). This would suggest transmission by a common vector, most likely (Nicholson and PF-04979064 others 2010), and thought to be the vector of (Yabsley and others 2008). species ticks are also known to form almost 100 per cent of the tick infestations in street dogs in the urban areas of India (Megat Abd Rani and others 2011) with up to 80 per cent of the dogs infested. The study also reported a similar rate of co-infections with and (4.5 to 7 per cent) in Mumbai and Delhi, respectively. The IDEXX 4Dx kit used in the present study is unable to distinguish between and by PCR in a nearby geographical location at a similar prevalence, the seroreaction in the present study is likely to be due to this species and the authors have assumed this throughout this short communication. No cases of PF-04979064 were found in the dogs in this study. This may be a factor of the small number (48) of animals tested; however, there have been other studies in India reporting the absence of this pathogen (Handa and others 1999). Either the test kits are not able to detect Indian strains of.
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- Abbreviations: CON, control; CANA, canagliflozin; AMPK, AMP-activated proteins kinase; ACC, acetyl-CoA carboxylase
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